Basic facts about the Earth

Facts to remember
The age of earth has been estimated to be around 4.54 billion years.
Equatorial circumference of the earth is 40,067 km and equatorial diameter is 12,757 km
Polar circumference of the earth is 40,000 km polar diameter is 12,714 km
The total surface area of the earth is 510,100,500 sq km
The Hydrosphere (sea) comprises 70.8% of the surface area and Lithosphere (land) is 29.2%
The percentage of fresh water on earth is 3% while 97% of hydrosphere is salty water.
The earth is made up of three layers – crust (outermost), mantle and core (innermost).
The period of rotation of the earth is 23 hrs 56 mts 4.091 secs
The speed of rotation at the equator is 1674 kmph
The time taken by the earth to rotate about its axis so that the distant stars appear in the same position in the sky is known as Sidereal Day.
The time taken by the earth to rotate about its axis so that the sun appears in the same position in the sky is known as Solar Day. A sidereal day is shorter than a solar day.
The escape velocity on earth 11.186 km/sec
The highest point on earth is Mt Everest at 8,848 meters
The deepest point on earth is Challenger Deep in the Pacific Ocean at 11,034 meters

Important International Lines

LineCountries divided
Radcliffe LineIndia and Pakistan
Macmahan LineIndia and China
Durand LinePakistan and Afghanistan
Maginot LineFrance and Germany
38th ParallelNorth and South Korea
17th ParallelNorth and South Vietnam
49th ParallelUSA and Canada


 

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International Lines

CountriesOptionName of the Line
1. India and China a. 38th Parallel
2. France and Germanyb. Macmahan Line
3. USA and Canadac. 17th Parallel
4. Pakistan and Afghanistand. Radcliffe Line
5. North and South Koreae. 49th Parallel
6. India and Pakistanf. Maginot Line
7. North and South Vietnamg. Durand Line