Important Places during India's Freedom Struggle

1. Chauri Chaura

The place in Uttar Pradesh, near Gorakhpur which came into news when a frenzied mob set fire to a police station killing 23 people inside. Gandhiji had given a call for non-cooperation movement in 1920. Since the movement was to be non-violent, Gandhiji was deeply hurt by the violence of the people and hastily called off the non-cooperation movement. The incident occurred on 04 Feb 1922.

2. Kakori

The place in Lucknow district of Uttar Pradesh. The famous Kakori Train Dacoity took place on 09 Aug 1925. Revolutionaries led by Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqulla Khan, Chandrasekhar Azad and others stopped a train carrying British government money. The train was looted of the treasury by the revolutionaries who needed the money to run the freedom struggle.

3. Chittagong

Located in present day Bangladesh, the place is well-known for Chittagong Armoury Raid. The raid was led by revolutionary Surya Sen. Surya Sen had organised a group of young revolutionaries and together they planned to lay a siege to police armouries in Chittagong. On 18 April 1930, Surya Sen alongwith his troop captured the police armoury, cut off telegraph lines and hoisted the National Flag.

4. Champaran

In the year 1917, Gandhiji began his active involvement in India's politics from this place in Bihar. At Champaran, the farmers were being forced to grow unremunerative indigo plant which yielded blue dye. Gandhiji was called upon by some activists to solve the problem of the cultivators. Gandhiji for the first time used the tool of non-violence. He toured the villages and compelled the government to pass the Champaran Agraria Law in 1918.

5. Dandi

A small village on the coast of Gulf of Khambhat, Arabian Sea. The place shot to world fame when Gandhiji led the famous Dandi March from Sabarmati Ashram near Ahmedabad on 12 March 1930. On the 24th day, i.e. 06 April 1930, Gandhiji reached Dandi and made salt as a protest against the tax imposed on salt by the British. The incident also marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement. Recently Time magazine listed the Salt Satyagraha in its list of Top 10 Most Influential Protests of all time.

Port Blair, Bardoli, Amritsar, Stuttgart, Kheda, Vedaranyam, Moirang, Lahore, Bombay, Pune, Nagpur, Vaikom

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6. Port Blair

The present capital of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Port Blair played an important role during the freedom struggle. Firstly, the British had constructed the huge Cellular Jail on the island. Indian prisoners, especially political ones, were sent to the jail, the punishment being popularly known as Kala Pani. Sachindranath Sanyal, the author of Bandi Jeevan, and Vinayak Damodar Savarkar were such freedom fighters who were sent to the Cellular Jail. Secondly, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose hoisted the National Flag on 30 Dec 1943 and declared it to be the headquarters of the Provisional Government of India. The Airport at Port Blair is named Veer Savarkar International Airport.

7. Bardoli

In 1925, the taluka of Bardoli in Gujarat suffered from floods and famine, causing crop production to suffer and leaving farmers facing great financial troubles. However, the Government had raised the tax rate by 30% that year. The farmers protested in vain. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in consultation organised the Bardoli Satyagraha in which the farmers refused to pay the taxes despite the threat of confiscation of property. In the end the Government relented and enhanced taxes were withdrawn. Vallabhbhai Patel earned the title of Sardar from this Satyagraha.

8. Amritsar

Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, well known for the massacre of innocent and peaceful gathering of people who had gathered in the park for a public meeting. On 13 April 1919 (Baisakhi Day), a crowd of about 20,000 people had gathered in the small park, when troops surrounding the park were ordered by Brig Gen REH Dyer to open fire. The official figures put the casualty at 379, but unofficial figures have been much higher. Michael O'Dyer the Lt. Governor of Punjab was shot dead by Udham Singh 21 years later. In protest against the incident Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood bestowed upon him by the British in 1915.

9. Stuttgart

Located in Germany, the place is well-known in India's Freedom Struggle for unfurling of the National Flag by Madame Bhikaji Cama. The ocassion was the meeting of International Socialist Congress on August 22, 1907. The flag was known as Saptarishi Flag. This flag had green at the top, saffron in the centre and red at the bottom. The flag had eight lotuses in a line on the green band and the words Vande Mataram, in the Devanagari script, were inscribed on the central band.

10. Kheda

Kheda is a district in Gujarat. It is known for Kheda Satyagraha of 1918 which Gandhiji launched to help the cultivators of the district who were going through a year of near famine. The farmers were asking for waiver of revenue collection for the year as the production had been very low. The Government however refused to accept the demand and hence Gandhiji advised the farmers to launch Satyagraha. In the end the Government relented by suspending tax collection for the year.

11. Vedaranyam

Vedaranyam in Nagipattinam district of Tamilnadu is known in the history of India's independence for being the place at which Chakravarty Rajagopalachari accomplished the Salt Satyagraha on 30 April 1930, the same month and year in which Gandhiji broke the salt laws at Dandi, Gujarat.

12. Moirang

Located in Manipur, the place was in news during freedom struggle when the Indian National Army took over the place from British with Japanese support. Colonel Shaukat Malik of the Azad Hind Fauz hoisted the Indian Tricolour on 14 April 1944.

13. Lahore

The Lahore Session of Indian National Congress holds special significance in the history of India's Freedom Struggle. Jawaharlal Nehru unfurled the Indian National Flag on the midnight of Dec 31, 1929. A pledge was taken by all those present that January 26 would be celebrated as Independence Day every year. A resolution demanding Poorna Swaraj meaning complete independence from the British was passed. Lahore was also the place where freedom fighter Jatin Das fasted to death in jail demanding better conditions for prisoners. It was also in Lahore's Kot Lakhpat Jail that Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were hanged by the British on 23 March 1931.

14. Bombay

The famous Quit India Movement also known as August Kranti was launched from this city in 1942. At the historic Bombay session of Indian National Congress which began on the 7th August 1942 at Gowalia Tank Maidan, Mahatma Gandhi gave a call of Quit India and also called upon Indians to do or die. All the leaders Gandhi, Nehru, Sardar Patel and Maulana Azad were immediately arrested and on 09 August 1942, in absence of prominent leaders Aruna Asaf Ali hoisted the National Flag.

15. Pune

Gandhi was imprisoned at Yerawada Jail in Pune. The famous Poona Pact was signed between Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi at Yerawada jail on 24 September 1932. The pact was a settlement arrived at as a result of Gandhiji's protest at Ramsay Macdonald's Communal Award.
Again, in 1942, when Gandhiji launched the Quit India Movement, he was arrested and imprisoned at Aga Khan Palace in Pune. It was at this place that his wife, Kasturba Gandhi breathed her last.

16. Nagpur

Nagpur is well known for the Flag Satyagraha whose success is credited to the leadership of Sardar Patel. The Tricolour had not been allowed to be flown beside the Union Jack on the Town Hall. It was also prohibited to take the flag out in procession. The Satyagraha started on 01 May 1923. Sardar Patel ensured a steady flow of satyagrahis from different parts of the country who courted arrest and filled the Nagpur jail. Finally government relented and no more prohibitory orders were issued. All prisoners were released and they carried out a Flag March at the end of which Sardar Patel announced the closure of Flag Satyagraha.

17. Vaikom

Vaikom, a town in Kerala is famous for Vaikom Satyagraha launched against untouchability among Hindus. The satyagraha was led by T.K. Madhavan in the year 1924. The Satyagraha established the rights of lower castes to walk through the temple road in Vaikom and also paved the way for Temple Entry Act.

Places during Freedom Struggle

1. Train dacoity a. Dandi
2. Salt satyagrahab. Bombay
3. Kala panic. Stuttgart
4. Gowalia tankd. Lahore
5. Armoury raide. Kakori
6. Bhikaji Camaf. Nagpur
7. Poorna Swarajg. Chittagong
8. Flag Satyagrahah. Port Blair